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Kaohsiung Cross-Harbor Tunnel

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Preface:
  The Port of Kaohsiung, located at 120° 15’ east longitude and 22°37’ north latitude, extends 12 km in length from the No. 1 Entrance in the northwest to the No. 2 Entrance in the southeast, with a total water area of 12.7km2. To the west, a narrow sandbar serves as a natural breakwater. The Port of Kaohsiung, particularly well-equipped for container shipping, is the largest international seaport in Taiwan (Republic of China) and one of the largest container transshipment centers in East Asia.
  Due to geographic restrictions prior to 1983, the development of the Port of Kaohsiung was limited to the northeast bank of the fairway. The Chichin District, on the southwest bank, was largely sidestepped by construction of the No. 2 Entrance in 1969. The port reopened the Chung-Hsin Commercial Harbor Area as Container Terminal No. 4 in 1983 in order to facilitate equitable harbor development on both sides of the main fairway, improve overall utilization of port land, attract more container shipping business, and expand services available to shipping customers.
  To end Chichin’s isolation and increase the accessibility of all port land, a Cross-Harbor Tunnel was completed 3 years ahead of the completion of the Container Terminal No. 4 project. The tunnel was designed to serve the needs of both container traffic and Chichin District residents. Harbor area photograph
  The construction of the Cross-Harbor Tunnel was a complicated task; the first of its kind in Taiwan. In order to ensure the proper approach and techniques were used, the government contracted the Retired Servicemen Engineering Agency (RSEA) to undertake the project on a turnkey basis, with technical cooperation from experienced overseas companies.
Location of the Tunnel:
  To get to the Cross-Harbor Tunnel, take Hsin-Shen Road past Yukong S. 3rd Road to the tunnel entrance, located between the Chien-Chen Fishery Harbor and Container Terminal No. 3. Cross the 440-meter-wide, 14-meter-deep fairway to the Chung-Hsin Commercial Harbor Area in the Chichin District on the opposite bank.
Design criteria:
 
  1. 1. The designed service life is 50 years.
  2. The designed speed limit for the tunnel is 60 KPH.
  3. The designed max longitudinal gradient is 4%, the min gradient is 0.15%.
  4.  The designed crossfall is no less than 1% within the tunnel; no less than 2.5% outside.
  5. The designed min. radius of sag curve is 1200M, and the min radius of crest curve is 3000M.
  6. The Tunnel is designed as a dual two-lane carriage way, each way with 7m. in net width and 4.6 M in net high, to serve container lorries.
  7. The designed traffic volume is 15,111 vehicles per day, and 1,270 vehicles per peak hour in each direction.
  8. Within the tunnel, a longitudinal ventilation system is provided for each direction to control the level of pollutants below 250 PPM for CO, and (12 x 10-3) M-1 for allowable smoke concentration.
  9.  The designed min, luminance is 2.5 cd per M2 with-in the tunnel; 400 cd per M2 at the portal; 1 cd per M2 at the approach ramp.
Contents of the Tunnel:
  The Tunnel includes a 1,550m main tunnel section and approach ramps measuring 729.8m of connecting road, mechanical and electrical equipment.
  The main tunnel and approach ramp include:
 
  1. Chien-Chen open approach: 259.5M
  2. Chung-Hsin open approach: 249.25M
  3. Chien-Chen cut and cover section: 155.75M
  4. Chung-Hsin cut and cover section: 165.75M
  5. Immersed tube section: 720M. (including 6-unit-tube, each 120M in length, 7.718~9.35 X 24M in area).
  6.  Tunnel services facilities: power, lighting, traffic-surveillance and control, ventilation and drainage systems, etc.
Construction Period:
  The tunnel took 3 years to complete (May 1981 - May 1984).
 Total costs: NT$ 4,005,810,000
   
There are four great benefits of this tunnel:
 
  1. It linked Container Terminal No.4 and Chichin District directly to the rest of the port, increasing annual capacity of the port by more than 2 million TEU.
  2. It accelerated the development and prosperity of Chichin District, improving residents’ quality of life and environment.
  3. It introduced international engineering expertise, improving domestic project quality.
  4.  It enhances the tourist appeal of Kaohsiung Port and City.
The four principal goals of this tunnel included:
 
  1. Streamline traffic flows.
  2.  Prevent accident incidents and facilitate disaster response capabilities.
  3. Normalize equipment.
  4.  Save energy.
   
Last updated:2017-04-06
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